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Discussion Starter #21
My VAG-COM cable just came and I used it. I'm utterly confused by all the information its giving me...I'll try to lay it all out here. I got slightly different results depending on whether the vehicle was running, not running, or not running and not cranking. I checked all common modules using VCDS Lite but I'm only going to post the pertinent ones below:

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01-Engine: connected fine no fault codes
02-Auto Trans: connected fine no fault codes
03-ABS Brakes: connected fine no fault codes
08-Auto HVAC:
"No Response from Controller!"
09-Cent. Elect.: "No Response from Controller!"
15-Airbags
: connected fine no fault codes

16-Steering wheel: sort of connected, with glitchy behavior, then "Too many communication errors to continue" Later,it finally connected and found 5 fault.
01426 - Controls in Steering Wheel (E221)
41-10 - Blocked or No Voltage - Intermittent
01336 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
80-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01336 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01341 - Control Module in Instrument Panel On Comfort CAN (J285)
27-00 - Implausible Signal
01341 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
17-Instruments: connected with 7 fault codes:
01314 - Engine Control Module
49-10 - No Communications - Intermittent
01336 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01336 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
80-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01330 - Central Control Module for Central Convenience (J393)
49-10 - No Communications - Intermittent
00476 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01304 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01326 - Control Module for Multi-Function Steering Wheel (J453)
49-10 - No Communications - Intermittent
I cleared the above codes, then re-checked and found the following 1 code
01336 - Data Bus for Comfort System
49-00 - No Communications
18-Aux. Heat: "No Response from Controller!"
19-CAN Gateway: connected with 7 faults found:
01336 - Data Bus for Comfort System
49-00 - No Communications
01331 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01332 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01333 - Door Control Module; Rear Left (J388)
49-10 - No Communications - Intermittent
01334 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
00463 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01303 - Telephone Transceiver (R36)
49-00 - No Communications
I cleared above codes and then re-checked and found 1 code below
01336 - Data Bus for Comfort System
49-00 - No Communications
22-AWD: "No Response from Controller!" (expected because I don't have AWD)
25-Imobilizer: connected, no faults found
35-Centr Locks: "No Response from Controller!"
37-Navigation: "No Response from Controller!"
(expected because I don't have nav)
45-Inter. Monitor: "No Response from Controller!"
46-Central Conv.: "No Response from Controller!"; Then, after multiple tries...finally connected to CCM and found 13 faults:
01336 - Data Bus for Comfort System
80-00 - Single-Wire Operation
01334 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01333 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01332 - Door Control Module; Passenger Side (J387)
49-00 - No Communications
01331 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01299 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
00928 - Locking Module for Central Locking; Front Driver Side (F220)
54-10 - Incorrectly Equipped - Intermittent
00929 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
54-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
00928 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
27-00 - Please Register/Activate
00943 - Heated Exterior Mirror; Driver Side (Z4)
35-10 - - - Intermittent
00944 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
35-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01333 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-00 - Please Register/Activate
01334 - Door Control Module; Rear Right (J398)
49-00 - No Communications
After clearing all the above codes, the 1 below came back
01333 - Door Control Module; Rear Left (J388)
49-00 - No Communications
55-Xenon Range: "No Response from Controller!"
56-Radio: "No Response from Controller!" (radio does work); after numerous tries, the radio module finally connected with these 8 fault codes:

00879 - Connection to Speaker Front Right
44-10 - Short Circuit - Intermittent
00881 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
44-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
00856 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
36-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
00849 - S-contact at Ignition/Starter Switch (D)
78-10 - Missing Messages - Intermittent
01326 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
01064 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
78-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
00625 - Vehicle Speed Signal
78-10 - Missing Messages - Intermittent
01305 - Shareware Version. To Decode all DTCs
49-10 - Please Register/Activate - Intermittent
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So my question is: does this indicate a fried CCM? Maybe there are numerous issues going on (I saw a short-circuit in the front right speaker, for example), but it is likely that the main cause of the majority of these issues is the CCM?
 

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This is helpful - thank you. I tried this procedure today.
  • Whenever the vehicle correctly cranked & started, the voltage on my jumper wire across relay #13 quickly ramped up from 4V up to about 10V (I suspect it just doesn't have time to get all the way up to 12V before the engine starts, the key is released, and power to this circuit is cut).
  • Whenever the vehicle did not crank, there was no voltage on my jumper wire across relay #13.
So, I think this vindicates relay #13 as well as most of the circuit that exists 'downstream' of the relay, and it casts further suspicion on everything that is 'upstream'. Is the CCM upstream? Is the CCM responsible for sending the voltage to relay #13? Aside from the actual wires themselves, are there any other upstream components that should still be ruled out?
  • "Whenever the vehicle did not crank, there was no voltage on my jumper wire across relay #13."
The only at all likely is the ignition switch, I suggest you replace it.
The only possibilities for your no cranking issue, are the ignition switch or its wiring.

As you don't have relay #12, the CCM can't prevent cranking. The ECM can't either.
You do have problems with your CCM but they are NOT related to starting.
After you get the starting problem fixed, if you want to address the the CCM issues,
we could help you with that. But post only facts, leave out the wild theories.
 

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So my question is: does this indicate a fried CCM? Maybe there are numerous issues going on (I saw a short-circuit in the front right speaker, for example), but it is likely that the main cause of the majority of these issues is the CCM?
NO !
The CCM is most likely OK, but there are faults in some items connected to it, or their wiring.
 

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Discussion Starter #24
I appreciate all the help, advice, and expertise I've had in this thread.....but here is where I'm at:

If my problem is caused by a lone wire "somewhere", I'm not going to find it. The thought of an an electrical amature like myself, spending days upon more days trying to read electrical system diagrams, fumbling through 'how much voltage should I be getting here, when the key is on', with a crappy multi-meter, probing dozens of circuits in multiple places for voltage, ground, or continuity......it's just not happening. I've done my due diligence by unbundling and visually inspecting all of the wiring and splices under the driver's carpet outside and inside the CCM box.

At this point, I've just purchased a $75 used CCM off of eBay. If it doesn't solve my issue, the car will likely go onto Craigslist for very cheap, as a mechanic's special. Someone with more time on their hands, and electrical expertise can chase-down the problem. If you think I'm making a huge mistake....then come get first in line to buy the car. Even with everything working properly, it's only worth about $2,500 so it's not going to get much more of my time. It also has an exhaust leak at the flex pipe (again!) that needs to be repaired.

Anyway, I will update this thread when I get the replacement CCM installed to let the world know whether it helped or not. In the meantime, while I'm waiting for the CCM to ship, I may try to confirm the ignition switch wiring is good before I put the steering column plastic back on (I already replaced the ignition switch itself).
 

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Discussion Starter #26
Update:

I had already ruled-out the ignition switch (replaced it), but had never ruled out its wiring. So, yesterday to checked voltage to the wires when the key is turned to 'start', and I observed 12v on the wire at terminal 50b (what I believe sends the voltage to the starter solenoid). Is there a relay in-line between the ignition switch and the starter solenoid?

Also, just to be doubly-sure of the basics I rechecked the following:
  • 12v from battery terminal (+) to battery terminal (-)
  • 12v from battery terminal clamp (+) to battery terminal clamp (-)
  • 12v from batter terminal (+) to engine block bare metal (-)
  • I tried to get voltage from the large terminal on the starter (+) to the bare metal of the engine block (-), but it was hard to get it to read 12v due to some corrosion on the starter terminal (I had to really scrape and press hard with the multi-meter points. So, I'm starting to suspect this may be my "no-crank" culprit The starter itself does look old. However, this does nothing to explain any of my myriad bizzare electrical behaviors to my 'convenience systems', but it may be the cause of the no crank issue. Also, the more I work on this problem, the more I'm establishing a pattern that suggests the no crank problem is more likely to present itself when the engine is at operating temperature (hot starter solenoid makes an already bad connection even worse). Again: why would the door locks suddenly engage and moonroof suddenly start working as soon as the starter solenoid has cooled down enough to operate? That part doesn't make sense to me.
 

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I'm also thinking not the CCM. Have you tried to scan the car with the ABS module unplugged? The ABS can corrupt the CAN bus and cause all sorts of odd behavior so that is something to check.
I'd also clean any and all bad connections you find as you go and then maybe even look for more. Are the ground lugs clean? I don't know exactly where they are but I'm sure if you search the forums you'll find out. I think there is one or a few beneath the carpet under the relay panels but that is just a swag.
 

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In future, when posting codes, look them up here and post as below

01333 - Door Control Module Rear Left (J388): Defective
01332 - Door Control Module; Passenger Side (J387) 49-00 - No Communications
01331 - Door Control Module; Driver Side (J386): Supply Voltage Too Low
01299 - Diagnostic Interface for Data Bus (J533): No Communications
00928 - Locking Module for Central Locking; Front Driver Side (F220) 54-10 - Incorrectly Equipped - Intermittent
00929 - Locking Module for Central Locking; Front Passenger Side (F221): Implausible
00928 - Locking Module for Central Locking; Front Driver Side (F220): Implausible
00943 - Heated Exterior Mirror; Driver Side (Z4) 35-10 - - - Intermittent
 

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Connect the jumper across relay #13, check if there is voltage on the jumper while trying to start (when it won't crank).
If there is about 12V at the jumper and it is not cranking.
The fault is is in the wire that goes from the relay, through some connectors to the starter solenoid.
Most likely a bad connection where it connects to the starter solenoid. (small wire)
This is helpful - thank you. I tried this procedure today.

Whenever the vehicle correctly cranked & started, the voltage on my jumper wire across relay #13 quickly ramped up from 4V up to about 10V, when the key is released the power is cut.
Whenever the vehicle did not crank, there was no voltage on my jumper wire across relay #13.
It appears that you do have a Starting interlock (alarm) relay #12,
but it may be in position #4 as in this thread.

See this thread from post #16:
That relay is controlled by the CCM, you can permanently bypass that relay with a jumper. That will end your cranking problem.
It is not a standard relay, do NOT replace it with a standard relay.
Post a pic of your relay panel.

The CCM is most likely good. Replacing it at this stage is just a waste of time and money.
There are faults in some parts of the CCM system, but there is nothing to indicate a fault in the CCM Module itself.
 

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Discussion Starter #30
Thanks for that 'pro-tip', TomVW - I'll look at my relay panel again.

Here is a further update, I dug may way down to my starter (not a small feat). I found that the red (w/ black stripe) wire that connects to the solenoid does not get 12V when the key is turned to the start position. I tested it using a multi-meter, pos+ probe on the wire and neg- probe on the engine block. I took my meter back into the driver's seat and measured voltage to the same red (with black stripe) wire coming out of the ignition switch and it read 12V when the key was turned to 'start'.

So it seems there is something (maybe this relay #4?) in between the ignition switch harness and the starter that is shorted, blown, corroded?
 

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Here is a further update, I dug may way down to my starter (not a small feat). I found that the red (w/ black stripe) wire that connects to the solenoid does not get 12V when the key is turned to the start position. I tested it using a multi-meter, pos+ probe on the wire and neg- probe on the engine block. I took my meter back into the driver's seat and measured voltage to the same red (with black stripe) wire coming out of the ignition switch and it read 12V when the key was turned to 'start'.
All of that had already been established.

The Red/Black wire from the ignition switch connects to relay #12.
You need to find relay #12 wherever it is located, and fit a jumper across it.
That will end your cranking problem.

Then, if you like, we can look at the CCM issues.
 

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Discussion Starter #33
DIAGNOSED! After weeks of troubleshooting I (or more correctly, Tomvw!) found the cause of my original intermittent no-crank issue! Read on...

I jumpered the relay in position #4 ("185" like Australia, upside-down) putting a wire between 2 & 8 and voila! I had 12V on the red/black wire at the starter, when key is turned to start position. Just to be sure, I put the relay back into its place and checked again, and back down to negligible voltage at the same wire.

The 'collateral damage' is as follow:
- the vehicle is currently in 'service mode' with the A/C compressor is dangling, the airbox out, and exhaust flange disconnected above the 1st catalytic converter, in order for me to get at the starter.
- the starter is out and a new $200 starter is sitting on my garage floor nearby (I have yet to have the old started tested, but I might just put the new starter in regardless, because of how much of a pain it is to get at that thing and the new/original starter is looking pretty wasted).
- I have a used eBay CCM sitting on the passenger seat; as others have advised, I probably don't need it, but....
- My tolerance for working on broken vehicles is entirely exhausted...I've resolved to overturn my toolbox above the trash can can shake out all of its contents, wipe it out with degreaser, and then leave a solitary credit card inside so that the next time I have a problem I'll be reminded to just bring it in to the pros.

I appreciate all the help and patience. Ultimately I'm just a 'hack' when it comes to vehicles and especially when it comes to electrical issues. I am considering purchasing a replacement for the exact relay part itself, if I can find one, as opposed to leaving it permanently jumpered. I will post an update when I have the car all back together.
 

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Glad to see this was resolved. So many times, the OP resolves the issues and never posts the resolution!

Hopefully, after a few days your feelings will change, you will keep your tools and be motivated to tackle problems in the future yourself. Paying the pros to work on these vehicles can get quite expensive rather quickly. Over the years, I have literally seen hundreds of Passats in the junkyard, with well maintained interiors and exteriors. They are there because the owner was overwhelmed with potential repair costs. The usual suspects are: automatic transmission failure, bent valves from TB failure, overheating damage, and low oil pressure damage (from sludge or a clogged pickup in the oil pan).

Our Passats need owners who care and can provide that care. They are becoming fewer and fewer all the time. You have already proven that you care. Don't let the "geniuses" on this forum put you off. We are all on a learning curve, some are just much further advanced than others. I'm somewhere in the middle and share your lack of abilities when it comes to electrical issues. Try to stick with it and learn, we need and appreciate owners like you, to keep the forum and your car going!
 

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There was no reason to go near the starter, it was known that there was a fault in the cabin causing your problem.
Relay #12 (in position #4) is most likely good, so no point in replacing it. Also it is just an alarm interlock and pretty useless.
I suggest you just leave it bypassed, at least until you get the CCM issues corrected.
It would be very expensive (probably more than the car is worth) to get the CCM issues fixed at a shop.

If you would like my help with the CCM issues, don't replace the CCM or the relay.
The CCM is probably OK, you do have other faults in the CCM system, fix the known problems first.

The best place to start is the Locking Module for Central Locking; in the Front Driver Side Door.
It appears that you have the wrong lock in that door, check the part number.
It is possible that this could be causing most of the problems, including the start interlock relay issue.
Replace that lock module with the correct part, then clear codes, scan and post the codes as advised earlier.
 
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