There are two distinct systems for theft prevention:
1) The alarm system, which is controlled by the CCM. It has to energize a relay to complete the circuit to activate the starter. That relay was eliminated from May 2003 (production date). OP refers to fuse 14, which powers that relay (via the CCM) and a bunch of other CCM stuff.
2) The immobilizer, from October 2000 (production date). It uses an RFID chip in the key, which the instrument cluster reads and compares to a (very short) list of authorized keys. It indeed will shut down the engine a few seconds after starting if it doesn't see an authorized key, but it does allow crank and start.
Presuming the OP is asking about the alarm system, you can arm/disarm it with the key in the driver's door. If you're not getting the "goose honk" alarm when you open the door, it's probably disarmed. Also, the red LED in the driver's door blinks only when it's armed.
Assuming the OP has a no-crank condition, the circuit is:
* Ignition switch
* Alarm relay
* Park/neutral or clutch interlock relay (auto or manual)
* Starter itself
Of course, the starter, or the ground strap between the engine and body could cause similar symptoms.
Do the headlights, wipers, etc., go off when you turn the key to start, i.e. is the load reduction relay activating? If it is, that may rule out the ignition switch.
We experienced no-crank on the 2001 Passat (late 2000 production, just before 2001.5 facelift). I had replaced the power mirror switch with an aftermarket one which had make-before-break where it was supposed to break-before-make, and it blew fuse #6 (if I recall correctly). My temporary fix was to short across the security relay (almost trivial to do, reminiscent of the old days of hot-wiring a car to start it ).